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zoeyk

Posts: 2,004
Registered: Mar 4, 2007
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Pente TERMS List, by: The Community
Posted: Aug 14, 2014, 1:46 AM

The original Thread for this were you may post your comments can be found here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=1&threadID=3970&tstart=32



Community List of "PENTE TERMS" to Help explain the game in discussions:

(SPECIAL NOTE: there are redundancies in the various members contributions such as atari and adzi as examples, and some of the terms were taken from the game GO and the game CHESS, and then applied to pente because of the sheer relevance and compatibility in doing so.)

From Pente_fan:

Adzi
The struggle for tempo, momentum or initiative. This involves an attempt, by both players, to create sente, which his opponent must respond to. Ataris or other minor threats are ignored while each player tries to create a threat his opponent cannot top.

Atari
A move that threatens to capture an enemy pair.

Black
The player who moves second. (But, in the Orient, the player with white stones traditionally moves second.)

Capture
The removal from the board of a pair of enemy stones when a friendly stone is placed on one end of a pair that already had a friendly stone on the other end. Flanking five pairs of stones in this manner is one of two ways to win this game. (The other way is forming a pente.) This is sometimes called eating stones. See also, atari.

Chosen-Gomoku
A Japanese name for this game. (Chosen is another name for Korea's Yi Dynasty.) The Japanese also call this game Ninuki. See also, Pente and Omok.

Counter threat
A move that blocks an enemy threat while establishing a new threat. See also, adzi.

Double three
Two intersecting lines of three stones of the same color. Forming double threes is a common, and very effective, tactic. The Japanese call formations like this san-san. An open 3x3, with no enemy stones at any of the four ends of the formation, might be prohibited for White by the Oriental move restriction.

Extension
Adding a friendly stone to a formation with three stones in a row. (This term doesn't usually refer to open threes.) Although it may seem counter-intuitive, this is often a bad idea. Strong players prefer to hold an extension in reserve.

Fork
A move that serves two purposes. Often a fork creates two ataris, strengthens two formations, or one each of the above.

Gon
An attempt to force the last capture of the game through the use of threats. Occasionally, this situation may be referred to as herding. See also, atari.

Gote
A threat that need not be blocked by an opponent. The threat may be minor or the player may be able to neutralize it with a stronger threat. See also, sente and adzi.

Herding
An attempt to force the last capture of the game through the use of threats. Occasionally, this situation may be referred to as gon. See also, atari.

Initiative
The ability to dictate an opponent's moves to him through the use of threats. Establishing initiative is the most widely-used, and most effective, strategy for the game. This situation is also called momentum and tempo.

Intersection
The space where two lines meet on the board. Stones are played on these intersections, including the ones at the edges and corners of the board. Intersections are also called points.

Keystone
A stone that blocks one end of a formation of four opposing stones in a row. Threats to a keystone may occur when it is part of a pair.

Momentum
Having the leverage necessary to control an opponent's moves through the use of threats. Creating momentum is the most widely-used, and most effective, strategy for the game. This situation is also called initiative and tempo.

Ninuki
The Japanese name for this game. The full name is Ninuki-Renju. The Japanese also call this game Chosen-Gomoku. See also, Pente and Omok.

Omok
The Korean name for this game. (Koreans do not appear to distinguish between this game and the game where captures are not allowed.) See also, Pente, Ninuki and Chosen-Gomoku.

Open four
Four stones of the same color, in a row, with no stones on either end of the formation. This is a powerful, and usually game-winning, threat. An open four is occasionally referred to as a tessera.

Open three
Three stones of the same color, in a row, with no stones on either end of the formation. This is a very common threat. An open three is occasionally referred to as a tria.

Opening
The position of stones on the board after the first couple of turns. Although many different opening positions are possible, only about a dozen or so appear frequently.

Opening move restriction
A handicap used in both the Orient and the West for serious play between skilled players. White's second move must be at least three intersections away from his first move. This is sometimes called the tournament rule.

Oriental move restriction
A handicap used in the Orient for serious play between skilled players. White may not form a double three, or san-san, if all four ends of the formation are open. White is also sometimes prohibited from creating, or in some variations, just benefiting from, an overline.

Overline
Six or more stones of the same color in a row. Usually this is considered to be the same as a pente and wins the game. However, if some varieties of the Oriental move restriction are in play, an overline by White may be ignored or cause him to forfeit the game.

Pair
Two adjacent stones of the same color with no friendly stones at either end. This formation is subject to atari and enemy capture.

Pente
A formation of five stones of the same color in a row. This is one of the two ways of winning the game. (The other is making five captures.) This is also a trademarked name of the game used in the West*.

Point
The space where two lines meet on the board. Stones are played on these points, including the ones at the edges and corners of the board. Points are also called intersections.

Potential
Two stones of the same color with an empty point between them and no enemy stones at either end. This formation has the potential to become a stronger formation and is safer than a pair.

San-san
Two intersecting lines of three stones of the same color. Forming san-san is a common, and very effective, tactic. Westerners call formations like this double threes. An open 3x3, with no enemy stones at any of the four ends of the formation, might be prohibited for White by the Oriental move restriction.

Sente
A threat that forces an opponent to block it, or lose the game, thereby keeping, or gaining, the initiative. See also, gote.

Split four
Four stones of the same color in a row, with a gap of one point between them and no stones at either end of the formation. By itself, this is usually a dubious threat. When the split is in the middle of the four, the enemy may place both pairs in atari.

Split three
Three stones of the same color in a row, with one empty point between them and no enemy stones on either end. Alone, this is usually a dubious threat, because the pair in it is subject to atari. The Japanese call this tobi-san.

Stone
A playing piece or pawn. Traditionally, the black pieces are actually made from stone. (And the white pieces from bone, shell or coral.)

Tempo
Having the opportunity, and the time, to control an opponent's moves through the use of threats. Gaining tempo is the most widely-used, and most effective, strategy for the game. This situation is also called momentum and initiative.

Threat
A move that the enemy ignores at his own risk. The move may threaten to win the game soon, or it may threaten the safety of an enemy formation. See also, sente and gote.

Tobi-san
Three stones of the same color in a row, with one empty point between them and no enemy stones on either end. Alone, this is usually a dubious threat, because the pair in it is subject to atari. This is called a split three in the West.

Tournament rule
A handicap used in the West for serious play between skilled players. White's second move must be at least three intersections away from his first move. This is sometimes called the opening move restriction.

Triangle
Three stones of the same color that are not in a row and have one or two empty points between them. Forming triangles is a strong tactic that can gain a player the initiative.

White
The player who moves first. (But, in the Orient, the player with black stones traditionally moves first.)




From Richardiii:

Cap : to capture, ie to take a pair

Atari : (a Japanese Go term)to lay a stone that threatens to cap.

Extend : to lay a stone on the end of one?s own existing line of connected stones.

Sente : a Japanese Go term meaning ?initiative? or the ability to lay a stone that demands a continuing defensive posture from one's opponent.

Tres : 3 stones in a line.

Split 3 : a tres formed with a pair, a space, and then one more stone.

Posted or Divided 3 : a stone, a space, a stone, a space, and one more stone all of the same color.

Open 4 : 4 stones in a row with no defending stones at either end

Extended 4 : a 4 formed by 3 stones, a space, and one more stone.

Split 4 : a 4 formed by a pair, a space, and a second pair.

Trap : to lay a stone that forces one?s opponent to play into atari against himself.

Soft block : to block one space beyond the end of a tres or pair in such a way that denies one?s opponent an extension into sente on one end.

Draw : to make a pair that temps ones? opponent to play an atari move. An opening tactic favored by many players such as up2ng.

Winding the Clock : laying consecutive split 3?s in such a manner that as one?s opponent keeps playing into the split, and the split 3?s keep forming. The overall pattern evolves in a circular pattern of split 3?s. this pattern must be set up right for proper execution or it fails, but when it is set up right, it is a beauty to behold.





From Nosovs:

I think from Japanese games you can take such important terms.
Atari - next move will be capture, so you have to react on this treat.
There is different Atari
Atari-4 (atari with four after capture),
Atari-4* (atari with 5 -th capture threat)
Atari-3 (atari with three after capture)
Atari-3* (atari with 4 -th capture threat, and possibility make atari-4* next move)
Atari - just capture
The level of treat is different - that is important.

Fukumi - possibility to make 4x3 next move.

Adzi - This is understanding of your own strategy, and ignoring atari , because of attacking opponent. Because when you capture - you lose temp. So , that is keeping temp of your own attack




From Zoeyk:

=yosu= means situation or the state of things



=miru= is "to see"



=Yosu-miru= to "see how things stand"



=Sente= moves that result in taking and holding the initiative as
one player attacks, and the other defends in gote -
- or does not currently need to respond to moves made by his opponent -
- initiative - momentum - Offence -
- forcing control of board flow temporarily or permanently



=kikashi= (forcing move)



=Gote= means "succeeding move" lit: "after hand",
the opposite of sente, meaning "preceding move" (lit: "before hand")
- on defense -
- being forced temporarily or permanently into either
limited choices or a singular choice



=Kiai= snatching sente away from the opponent - keeping sente -
- or answering a kikashi in an unexpected way -
- agresive defense -
or - to answer opponent by setting a trap in a subtle and un-noticed
way to surprize with ambushing attack/trap thus if un-noticed and un-answered
will defuse opponents sente-
- smoke and mirrors or illusion when on defense



=shibaraku= yosu o miru beki da, better to wait and see for a little while -
- A probe - a sacrifice of a stone, but is designed to yield a very sophisticated
kind of information about a developing group and how best to attack it



=tenuki= (ignoring the opponent),as a kind of gambit. A player can break out of gote,
and can gain sente, by choosing to accept some future loss, on the local level,
in order to take the initiative to play elsewhere.





Atari - next move will be capture, so you have to react on this treat.
There is different Atari
Atari-4 (atari with four after capture),
Atari-4* (atari with 5 -th capture threat)
Atari-3 (atari with three after capture)
Atari-3* (atari with 4 -th capture threat, and possibility make atari-4* next move)
Atari - just capture
The level of treat is different - that is important.

Fukumi - possibility to make 4x3 next move.

Adzi - This is understanding of your own strategy, and ignoring atari , because of attacking opponent. Because when you capture - you lose temp. So , that is keeping temp of your own attack













Yosu-miru
A probe. A yosu-miru move is, in some sense, a sacrifice of a stone,
but is designed to yield a very sophisticated kind of information
about a developing group and how best to attack it, based on its
response. Yosu-miru draws on other concepts such as kikashi, aji,
and korigatachi.

yosu means situation or the state of things, and (miru) is "to see",
thus "yosu o miru", to "see how things stand". In Japanese this
expression is usually used to say that it's better to wait and see
before taking an action (e.g. "shibaraku yosu o miru beki da", it's
better to wait and see for a little while). It is not a single word
or a set phrase except
in Western Go literature, and "probe" is the preferred word, being
self-explanatory and actually used by the speakers of its originating
language.

Kiai
In the context of Go, kiai often translates as "fighting spirit",
i.e. aggressiveness or initiative, but not unthinking greed. Kiai
means keeping sente, that is not letting the opponent have his or
her way. A sensei might say, "You play too passively - put some kiai
in your moves!? A passive player may follow an opponent around the
board responding to each move in turn. Kiai moves are the opposite
of passive or submissive and a player showing kiai will dictate the
flow of play. Kiai moves can catch an opponent off-balance and turn
the game around. Examples of kiai moves include snatching sente away
from the opponent; defending with a move that also counter-attacks;
or answering a kikashi (forcing move) in an unexpected way. Kiai is
also a term used in Japanese martial arts, usually as a name for a
loud yell accompanying an attack. Obviously this is outwardly more
restrained in the context of a board game, but it is intended to be
in the same spirit.

Gote and Sente
A move that leaves the player an overwhelming follow-up move, and
thus forces the opponent to respond, is said to have "sente," or
"initiative"; the opponent has "gote". In most games, the player
who keeps sente most of the time will win.

Gote means "succeeding move" (lit: "after hand"), the opposite of
sente, meaning "preceding move" (lit: "before hand"). Sente is a
term to describe which player has the initiative in the game, and
which moves result in taking and holding the initiative. More
precisely, as one player attacks, and the other defends in gote,
it can be said that they respectively do and do not have the
initiative. The situation of having sente is favorable, permitting
control of the flow of the game.

Applying these concepts to a whole sequence is basic to higher strategy.
If Black starts a sequence that properly ends in an even number of plays,
Black retains sente in doing this. If Black starts a sequence that properly
ends after an odd number of plays, Black loses sente and takes gote. Accepting
gote should only be in return for some profitable exchange. Correct play in
the endgame can consist of playing available sente sequences, and then taking
the largest gote sequence on the board. That description is a simplification,
though. A reverse sente play is a special type of gote play, preventing the
opponent from making some sente move. The relative value of reverse sente
plays depends on the overall position, but one can count it as twice the
value of what it would be if purely gote.

A player has sente if he does not currently need to respond to moves made
by his opponent. This can be achieved by tenuki (ignoring the opponent),
as a kind of gambit. A player can break out of gote, and can gain sente,
by choosing to accept some future loss, on the local level, in order to
take the initiative to play elsewhere.

In the case that neither of the players directly respond to each other's
moves, the game can become difficult. Both players will have sente on their
turn, and the moves they are making are gote. This will likely end in large
exchanges, or one player will be shown to have a weaker position, and will
have to start answering to avoid heavy damage.





the following are not Go terms;

=momentum= the impetus to go forward, develop, or get stronger


=initiative= a first step; a commencing move -
the right or power to initiate something -
on one's own initiative without being prompted -
the first of a series of actions -
The power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task -
A beginning or introductory step -



Attraction;
Where by a player (typically white) sacrifices minor or major stones to expose the opponent. black may attempt to "attract" white by using either looming potentials, or strong looking defensive and obscure position that appears to threaten if not embraced.


Cheapo;
Slang for a primitive trap, often set in the hope of swindling a win from a lost position.


Combination;
A clever sequence of moves, often involving a sacrifice or several, to maintain the advantage or to initiate the acceptance and exploitation of a unintuitive minor flaw that the "once was winning" opponent has made. The moves of the other player are usually forced, i.e. a combination does not give the opponent too many possible lines of continuation. The move trees Width is controllably narrowed to a branch of beyond reasonable predictability. (note that Exploitation does not imply Combination is used)




Countergambit;
to answer a beatable trap ("that does not bluff if ignored"), by engaging with it.





Ignoregambit;
to ignore a gambit that was a bluff move.
a "draw move" can be a good example of a "bluff move" in some situations.





Reasonable Exchange;
The capture of a pair of pieces from both sides in the form of a trade, one pair white and the other pair black, two pairs that are considered almost equal in value given the boards state both before and after when comparing the decision of whether to mutually defend from capture, or to initiate a trade offering). Note that in taking the capture, they can surprise you by not taking in return, they may sacrifice the the take in order to gain tempo in another position.



Move order;
The sequence of moves one chooses to play an opening or execute a plan. Different move orders often have different advantages and disadvantages.



Novelty;
A new move not found in the data base. Sometimes called a "theoretical novelty" or "TN."
often time a good new novelty move can created on the 6th or 7th move of Player 2 that is not found in the data base, but not limited to the 6th or 7th move.





Overloaded;
A stone that has too many defensive duties. An overloaded stone can sometimes be deflected/diverted by being involved in a captured pair that contained a keystone, or it can also be required to abandon one of its defensive duties. this stone often needs to be given some attention to creatively remove its load of tension and risk unless. tempo can be one method. direct defense, or also obscure defense can be some other options to answer with.

Scire hostis animum - Intelligere ludum - Nosce te ipsum - Prima moventur conciliat - Nolite errare


zoeyk

Posts: 2,004
Registered: Mar 4, 2007
From: San Francisco
Age: 42
Home page
Re: Extensive list of Terms applicable to Pente, by: The Community
Posted: Aug 14, 2014, 1:52 AM

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:


Also see Novelty Move here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4663&tstart=15

Also see Adzi here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4643&tstart=15

Also see Mushin here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4668&tstart=15

Also see Initiative here:
(warning this thread gets a little heated in its discussion)
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4556&tstart=15

Also see Fukumi here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4281&tstart=30

Also see "How to answer a open 3 without blocking it" here:
(Please note that, we have not yet an agreed term name for this concept)
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=4310&tstart=15

Also see "Don't extend your 3 to a 4 too early" here:
http://pente.org/gameServer/forums/thread.jspa?forumID=27&threadID=3992&tstart=60

Scire hostis animum - Intelligere ludum - Nosce te ipsum - Prima moventur conciliat - Nolite errare
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