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zoeyk

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Pente Opening Theory, in progress, by: zoeyk
Posted: Aug 13, 2014, 1:23 AM

Originally posted by player: zoeyk.
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Pente Opening Theory
Chapter 1


Lets start from the beginning. by zoeyk

K10, P1's white's first move, is perfect and flawless.
aside from human err, when in perfect play white will always defeat Black.
even with the tournament rule of whites second move being 3 spaces from the center
stone or beyond, this does not eliminate whites heavy advantage over black.

a 19x19 board can be divided into 8 equal pie slices. looking like triangles.
any move done in a pie slice can be mirrored or flipped with in the other slices.
but in the end all of black's first moves fit into one slice.

Blacks 12 first moves of strength in (Classic Data Base - Pie slice format)




Blacks 12 first moves of strength (Pente Theory - Pie slice format)




with in the single slice, there are only 12 real first moves black can do that have strength.
not a winning position of strength mind you. but 12 moves that can divert the Key stone,
or give white a struggle in some fashion.
(keystone = K10 white's first move.)

K10 is called a key stone. there are other key stones in a game.
called such for different reasons that are relative.
but why is K10 a key stone? what does it mean?

to answer this we must look at a opening from whites 3rd move.
by whites 3rd move white can make a forcing 3 ( xx_x )




or can make threatening structures such as the following examples.







































black can not do this before white. before whites threatening 3rd is made all black can do is place 2 stones.
this does not mean that black cant make it messy for white tho.

white requires K10 along with the next to stones to build momentum.
black in many cases makes plays to attack one of whites first 3 stones.
usually K10, but not allways.

there are 3 basic opening strategies that black uses.

1. to threaten a capture early with the first 2 stones of black. some times this involves using a "draw move".
a draw move is defined as such by richardiii (to make a pair that temps ones opponent to play an atari move.)
atari defined as such by richardiii (a Japanese Go term)to lay a stone that threatens to cap.)
this almost allways involves a potential capture trade between colors.
which can change the lay out and positions on the board.
example opening;



example 2;


example 3;



2. to try and block white's structural spreading threats, and possibly create potential traps at same time by doing so.

Examples of black's second moves that can block white's structure/potential 3.









best 4 blocks In My Opinion



which is actually only 2 best blocks mirrored.




3. to do a long range structure that when white plays a 3 the blocking stone black plays creates a 3 connecting to its
long range structure thus in some cases pulling momentum away from whites structure completely unless white can find a creative solution.
example opening;




example 2.



example 3.




so back to whites key stone. if one of the 3 white stones is captured, whites momentum can sometimes be ended.
so K10 is key to whites momentum in most situations.

what other kinds of key stones are there?

one example is,...if a stone that blocks one end of a 4 in a row is removed by capture, unless there is an emediate 5th capture or
5 in a row available or you cant simply capture across the 4 in a row that is threating, the player must replace the stone to block the 4 in a row. this blocking stone is key. thus a key stone.
key stones are stones that must be protected by some method or replaced, or you lose.



Okay let's define some terms! by; karlw

Forcing move: A move which, if unanswered, leads to certain victory for the mover. Examples include: Extension to 4, Stretch 4, Split 4, Stretch 5, Split 5, Threat of 5th capture.

Initiative: The person who has control of the game has the initiative. White begins with the initiative because black must play defense if white knows how to build momentum.
When a player has the initiative, it is in his best interest to keep the initiative by playing forcing moves and making trias. Plays by him are either sente, meaning they retain the initiative,
or gote, meaning they give up the initiative.

There are two kinds of initiative, simple initiative and self-sustaining initiative. Simple initiative is exemplified by the open 3. Playing an open 3 gives you initiative, because although
it's not a forcing move, the other player has to answer after he runs out of forcing moves otherwise he will lose in 2 moves (Open 4 -> victory). But after he blocks that open 3, you can extend
or stretch, then...nothing. Simple initiative runs out.

Self-sustaining initiative, on the other hand, if played properly, never runs out, and 99% of the time leads to a win. It is such an important pente concept that I give it a new name:

Momentum: Momentum is probably the dominant concept of pente openings. It is a 3-stone shape that, although not giving the player any immediate initiative, creates so much momentum that,
if not properly blocked by the other player, leads to certain victory.

Momentum is important because it is what forces black to play defense in the opening. If black ignores white, momentum will make him pay, because even though white has the 2nd move restriction,
he can still build momentum in his first 3 moves. There are countless ways for white to build momentum.





=Sente= moves that result in taking and holding the initiative as
one player attacks, and the other defends in gote -
- or does not currently need to respond to moves made by his opponent -
- initiative - momentum - Offence -
- forcing control of board flow temporarily or permanently
sente: referring to a move, strategy, or position in which you retain the initiative.
Compare gote, which describes any move, strategy, or position in which you lose
or sacrifice the initiative, willingly or no.



>=Sente= moves that result in taking and holding the initiative as
one player attacks, and the other defends in gote -
- or does not currently need to respond to moves made by his opponent -
- initiative - momentum - Offence -
- forcing control of board flow temporarily or permanently
sente: referring to a move, strategy, or position in which you retain the initiative.
Compare gote, which describes any move, strategy, or position in which you lose
or sacrifice the initiative, willingly or no.




shapes are just one category by; up2ng

Remember, shapes are just one category of tools in the toolbox for white to start its attack. There are many other important concepts at play as well such as lining up a cap trade, setting up
keystone threats, knowing when to play a building move away from the action and when to take an inside position.

For third moves, there are a few basic concepts. First, it rarely makes sense for white to spread itself out too far too early in the game. it would be highly unusual and
almost always incorrect for white to choose a 3rd move that is outside the rectangle created by the K and N lines and the 8 and 13 lines. In other words, white's first 3 stones should usually
fit inside of a 4x4 grid, unless there is a compelling reason to try something else. Next, at least 2 of white's first 3 stones should form a "potential" -- meaning they should line up so that
they can form a 3 on the next move. Potentials can be XX, X_X, or X__X.







Pente Terms; by Richardiii

I have much more to say about openings, but in an address to:

a) Create a pente jargon which will make it easier to describe complex positions and patterns

Here?s some pente jargon that I use, some are old and some are mine.

Cap : to capture, ie to take a pair

Atari : (a Japanese Go term)to lay a stone that threatens to cap.

Extend : to lay a stone on the end of one?s own existing line of connected stones.

Sente : a Japanese Go term meaning ?initiative? or the ability to lay a stone that demands a continuing defensive posture from one's opponent.

Tres : 3 stones in a line.

Split 3 : a tres formed with a pair, a space, and then one more stone.

Posted or Divided 3 : a stone, a space, a stone, a space, and one more stone all of the same color.

Open 4 : 4 stones in a row with no defending stones at either end

Extended 4 : a 4 formed by 3 stones, a space, and one more stone.

Split 4 : a 4 formed by a pair, a space, and a second pair.

Trap : to lay a stone that forces one?s opponent to play into atari against himself.

Soft block : to block one space beyond the end of a tres or pair in such a way that denies one?s opponent an extension into sente on one end.

Draw : to make a pair that temps ones? opponent to play an atari move. An opening tactic favored by many players such as up2ng.

Winding the Clock : laying consecutive split 3?s in such a manner that as one?s opponent keeps playing into the split, and the split 3?s keep forming. The overall pattern evolves in a circular pattern of split 3?s. this pattern must be set up right for proper execution or it fails, but when it is set up right, it is a beauty to behold.


more terms forthcoming.

R3




These are some GO terms that can be used for Pente



=yosu= means situation or the state of things



=miru= is "to see"



=Yosu-miru=
to "see how things stand"



=Sente= moves that result in taking and holding the initiative as
one player attacks, and the other defends in gote -
- or does not currently need to respond to moves made by his opponent -
- initiative - momentum - Offence -
- forcing control of board flow temporarily or permanently
sente: referring to a move, strategy, or position in which you retain the initiative. Compare gote, which describes any move, strategy, or position in which you lose or sacrifice the initiative, willingly or no.



=kikashi= (forcing move)



=Gote= means "succeeding move" lit: "after hand",
the opposite of sente, meaning "preceding move" (lit: "before hand")
- on defense -
- being forced temporarily or permanently into either
limited choices or a singular choice



=Kiai= snatching sente away from the opponent - keeping sente -
- or answering a kikashi in an unexpected way -
- agresive defense -
or - to answer opponent by setting a trap in a subtle and un-noticed
way to surprize with ambushing attack/trap thus if un-noticed and un-answered
will defuse opponents sente-
- smoke and mirrors or illusion when on defense



=shibaraku=
yosu o miru beki da, better to wait and see for a little while -
- A probe - a sacrifice of a stone, but is designed to yield a very sophisticated
kind of information about a developing group and how best to attack it



=tenuki= (ignoring the opponent),as a kind of gambit. A player can break out of gote,
and can gain sente, by choosing to accept some future loss, on the local level,
in order to take the initiative to play elsewhere.





Atari - next move will be capture, so you have to react on this treat.
There is different Atari
Atari-4 (atari with four after capture),
Atari-4* (atari with 5 -th capture threat)
Atari-3 (atari with three after capture)
Atari-3* (atari with 4 -th capture threat, and possibility make atari-4* next move)
Atari - just capture
The level of treat is different - that is important.

Fukumi - possibility to make 4x3 next move.

Adzi - This is understanding of your own strategy, and ignoring atari , because of attacking opponent. Because when you capture - you lose temp. So , that is keeping temp of your own attack













Yosu-miru
A probe. A yosu-miru move is, in some sense, a sacrifice of a stone,
but is designed to yield a very sophisticated kind of information
about a developing group and how best to attack it, based on its
response. Yosu-miru draws on other concepts such as kikashi, aji,
and korigatachi.

yosu means situation or the state of things, and (miru) is "to see",
thus "yosu o miru", to "see how things stand". In Japanese this
expression is usually used to say that it's better to wait and see
before taking an action (e.g. "shibaraku yosu o miru beki da", it's
better to wait and see for a little while). It is not a single word
or a set phrase except
in Western Go literature, and "probe" is the preferred word, being
self-explanatory and actually used by the speakers of its originating
language.

Kiai
In the context of Go, kiai often translates as "fighting spirit",
i.e. aggressiveness or initiative, but not unthinking greed. Kiai
means keeping sente, that is not letting the opponent have his or
her way. A sensei might say, "You play too passively - put some kiai
in your moves!? A passive player may follow an opponent around the
board responding to each move in turn. Kiai moves are the opposite
of passive or submissive and a player showing kiai will dictate the
flow of play. Kiai moves can catch an opponent off-balance and turn
the game around. Examples of kiai moves include snatching sente away
from the opponent; defending with a move that also counter-attacks;
or answering a kikashi (forcing move) in an unexpected way. Kiai is
also a term used in Japanese martial arts, usually as a name for a
loud yell accompanying an attack. Obviously this is outwardly more
restrained in the context of a board game, but it is intended to be
in the same spirit.

Gote and Sente
A move that leaves the player an overwhelming follow-up move, and
thus forces the opponent to respond, is said to have "sente," or
"initiative"; the opponent has "gote". In most games, the player
who keeps sente most of the time will win.

Gote means "succeeding move" (lit: "after hand"), the opposite of
sente, meaning "preceding move" (lit: "before hand"). Sente is a
term to describe which player has the initiative in the game, and
which moves result in taking and holding the initiative. More
precisely, as one player attacks, and the other defends in gote,
it can be said that they respectively do and do not have the
initiative. The situation of having sente is favorable, permitting
control of the flow of the game.

Applying these concepts to a whole sequence is basic to higher strategy.
If Black starts a sequence that properly ends in an even number of plays,
Black retains sente in doing this. If Black starts a sequence that properly
ends after an odd number of plays, Black loses sente and takes gote. Accepting
gote should only be in return for some profitable exchange. Correct play in
the endgame can consist of playing available sente sequences, and then taking
the largest gote sequence on the board. That description is a simplification,
though. A reverse sente play is a special type of gote play, preventing the
opponent from making some sente move. The relative value of reverse sente
plays depends on the overall position, but one can count it as twice the
value of what it would be if purely gote.

A player has sente if he does not currently need to respond to moves made
by his opponent. This can be achieved by tenuki (ignoring the opponent),
as a kind of gambit. A player can break out of gote, and can gain sente,
by choosing to accept some future loss, on the local level, in order to
take the initiative to play elsewhere.

In the case that neither of the players directly respond to each other's
moves, the game can become difficult. Both players will have sente on their
turn, and the moves they are making are gote. This will likely end in large
exchanges, or one player will be shown to have a weaker position, and will
have to start answering to avoid heavy damage.





the following are not Go terms;

=momentum= the impetus to go forward, develop, or get stronger


=initiative= a first step; a commencing move -
the right or power to initiate something -
on one's own initiative without being prompted -
the first of a series of actions -
The power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task -
A beginning or introductory step -



this is just to show a ruff draft i was working on before...



Group A: K9, L9, M9, N9
If white answers all four of these openings
with N10 (and he should), the positions that follow are very
similar (two identical pairs, actually), and lead to a very
distinct level of play between two strong players. These
openings are based on destroying white from the inside,
trying to interfere with white's plans by building an open 3
early or blocking all his initiative.

The K9 Opening - 1 path for white




The L9 Opening - 1 path for white




The M9 Opening - 1 path for white




The K9 Opening - 1 path for white









Group B: K8, N8, O9, O8, O7

These five mid and longe range openings might not look like they have
much in common distancewise, but after black's 2nd
move a common threat may arise: black can play to
divert the keystone(K10) with its second move.

These are mostly based on the threat of building
an open three, or a draw move -(a pair or group
of 2 stones touching tempting a capture trade
)
which white must make a pair to block, then
threatening that pair. I call this tactic
"diversion," and it is a very important principle
of openings, because white is unable to build
momentum without the keystone. How ever if the
capture trade in a draw attack leaves white in a
favorible position, then position can be favorable
over having a forcing momentum. how ever this
usually turns the game tactical (as opposed to
being positional
), which will give black
better odds in some situations depending on
white's tactical skill level.
often times though, the capture trade will leave
white in a un-favorable position, thus often
times white will want to defend from a capture trade.

Another tactic these moves can do in many cases is
to make a second move conductive with its first
move away from the whites stones. then if white
does a building move(as opposed to making a
forcing 3 Ie; XX_X or X_XX
) then black can
"Possibly" play a blocking move (usually
addressing K10 but not allways
) which will not
only slow down white's momentum, but can connect up
with the first 2 black stones creating a potential
building structure.



The K8 Opening - 2 paths for white




The N8 Opening - 3 paths for white




The O9 Opening - 2 paths for white




The O8 Opening - 3 paths for white




The O7 Opening - 2 paths for white







Group C: M8, N7, K7, O10



The N7 Opening - 1 path for white




The M8 Opening - 2 paths for white




The K7 Opening - 3 paths for white




The O10 Opening - 2 paths for white














Opening conversion


to take two different black openings,
white plays a specific second move to
each of them to make the opening shape
the same, usually where K10 is the
keystone in one, the other will have
the white's second move act as the K10
keystone.


example one,K9 and N9









example two, L9 and M9









example three, N8 and K7









The following examples are not recomended for converting, they are merly examples of the conversion principle.

example four, K9 and O9







example five, O9 and P12












Old Pente Theory (Re-edited version.)

Today I will explain a little bit of my opening principles and the basics of how I see the game pente. I
think that we should start at the beginning. First I would like to say that if both black and white play
perfectly white will always win, because white moves first. Although even with the tournament rule of
(requiring whites second move to be three spaces from the center stone or beyond), and even though
this helps to push the advantage in the direction of a more even state, this does not achieve a perfect
balance of advantages. When white wins from perfect play, it is a truth of a cause and effect.
If black wins from perfect play then both sides did not play perfectly. This means white has made an
error when searching for the winning position. If both sides make a mistake or mistakes then it will be
the side that made the second to last mistake that will be win in most situations.
Black is basically smoke and mirrors. It tries to confuse white so that it cannot clearly see the winning
move, thus allowing black the opportunity to win if white moves incorrectly. Black decides white's second
moves of strength with its first move. Black decides the limitations of the opening with the first black
stone placed. Although white is generally offensive and black is generally defensive whether it be an
offensive defense or not, white responds and answers to black, as if asked a question. Some times
white must go on defense in order to retain its end game offense. And sacrifices can be necessary
sometimes. Some times you must lose ground in order to obtain more ground then you had before you
initially sacrificed it.

When I started playing pente, I focused on mastering
the truth side of the game, meaning I tried to master white more than I tried to master the illusion side of
the game, meaning black.
Let?s talk about the white?s second move of white. First of all we know white?s first move is K10. Now
black needs to make a first move. There are many first moves that black can do. If you are trying to
master white then you will need to come up with standard white second moves that automatically
respond to all of the black first moves. You are not limited to these, however but this is very good advice
to take in my opinion.
Now I will list Here my personal answers (meaning whites second moves) that I always use to all of

Blacks 12 first moves of strength (Pente Theory - Pie slice format)




Pente Opening Bible

black's first moves & white's second moves to respond indevidually:

If Black's first move is: white's response is:

K9, L9, M9 or N9 ____________N10

O9 _______________________J7

K8 _______________________L13

M8 _______________________K14 (G11 works but not needed)

N8 _______________________N11 (N12 works but not needed)

O8 _______________________H7 (K14 works but not needed)

O7 _______________________N12

K7 _______________________G9





K9, L9, M9 or N9 _________N10



O9 _______________________J7



K8 _______________________L13



M8 _______________________K14 (G11 works but not needed)



N8 _______________________N11 (N12 works but not needed)



O8 _______________________H7(K14 works but not needed)



O7 _______________________N12



K7 _______________________G9






About Positional -vs- Tactical

Now, lets talk about Positional players, and Tactical players.
Positional refers to standard moves you have memorized.
Tactical play occurs when you find yourself in a place situation
where there are no known lines, and you are basically trail blazing through unknown patterns. Chess
books will tell you that if you take two Positional players, and one has strong tactical abilities, and the
other does not, then the one with tactical ability will be 90% stronger than the player that relies on
Positional moves alone. But understand, you must learn Positional moves first in my opinion. The
tactical learning will follow in time once you understand why those positional moves work.


Opening game - Mid game - End game - Defined

Now, what is the opening? Some might say it is the first five moves each. This is an over simplification.
An opening is actually all stones placed on the board before the first forcing three is made. Once a
forcing three is made you now have entered into what is called the mid game. The mid game is what
happens in between the opening and the end game. What is the end game? The end game is begins
when a player has obtained the winning self-sustaining initiative that shall carry ultimately carries him or
her all the way to victory by using forcing moves. So is there always a mid game then? No, some games
will not have a mid game. If the first three is made and continues to create forcing lines to the end and
never gives up momentum or self-sustained initiative then the mid game never existed.

What happens if I have played the correct Positional white moves that are guaranteed to win, and for
example black has made a split three where no matter which of the three blocking points I chose they
end up making me lose? If I have played all of the right moves up to that point, yet find myself in that
position, then I will know that there is a "thinking outside of the box" move that I must do.

However if this happens to you and
there is no winning position no matter how creatively you try, then you made a wrong turn. When you find
you?ve made a wrong turn always try to make changes as soon as possible. Keep in mind that most
players will make their mistake within the first five moves when playing as white. Always start at the
beginning, and examine your second, then your third, and so on.

Now, let?s discuss tactical moves. When thinking about what move you should do, what
should your chain of thought start with? Many new players will examine their own potentials and get
excited and make a move, and think to themselves that they are winning. All of a sudden their opponent
makes a move that clearly beats them, and they say, "Oops, I didn't see that! I thought I had the game."
This self-absorbed strategy will get you no where fast. Instead always look at your opponent?s potentials
first before examining your own. But don't stop there. Now look at your potentials. But wait. Now look at
how both coincide with relate to each other.

Potentials are interesting things. If you could see what is
not there, on every new move made a new vast tree root system of possibilities would appear, branching
and splitting again and again into hundreds if not thousands of possible end game scenarios. Even if
they never come into reality /or materialize by having an observer/a player make the move on the board,
the potentials are as still as real as the move actually chosen by a human. When white makes a move, it should be a
move that can answer any possible next black move. Perfect Play.



Mechanical shapes are shapes that can either appear within a pattern or have the potential to appear
within a pattern.
Once materialized onto the board the shape will have a mechanical function, a relatively universal action or
actions that it can within reason be relied on to perform, such as creating a double threat. One of my
favorite examples of a mechanical shape is the ?Pawnbroker,? but this is only one of many.

This is a PAWN BROKER shape;





Keep in mind that these shapes are only that - shapes. They are within a pattern and the surrounding stones in
the pattern that are not a part of the shape can stop the mechanical shape from executing its double
threat or trap. Something to consider when seeing your friend the Pawnbroker appear. In one game it
may work and in another it may not.


Scire hostis animum - Intelligere ludum - Nosce te ipsum - Prima moventur conciliat - Nolite errare

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